Information is authenticated as to source, content, and or
other factors of import. Examples include authenticated electronic mail
systems based on public-key cryptography, source-authenticated secure
channels based on authenticating information related to individuals, and the
use of third party certification to authenticate information.
Complexity: Redundancy required for authentication and the complexity of
high assurance authentication combine to limit the effectiveness of this
method, however, there is an increasing trend towards its use because it
is relatively efficient and reasonably easy to do with limited assurance.