by Timothy L. Sanz
The term information-age warfare appears in this article 43 times. For brevity, we use the acronym I-AW. Readers should understand that I-AW is not an approved acronym. Additionally, the term et alia (and others) appears in this article 42 times. For brevity, we use the symbol +. Readers should understand that these changes apply only to this bibliography.- Editor
Cyberwar, infowar, information-based warfare, cyberterrorism, netwar, cyberpunks, information (or digital) warriors, information dominance, cyberspace defense, information chaos-these are just a few recent coinages reflecting the language dealing with the very broad topic of information-age warfare (I-AW). Publications on this subject are growing exponentially, and because of this and the growing importance of the topic, a pressing need exists to identify and classify the vast amount of literature that has been published on the topic in just the past three or four years. This bibliography strives to capture as much of the published, open-source literature as possible and contains citations to publications that have appeared generally since the beginning of 1992, to include citations to books, journals, newspapers and documents.1 Due to the large volume of information warfare (IW) publications, this bibliography will be published in two parts. The second part, to be published in the September-October 1998 edition, will consist of cyberspace and security issues, electronic-technical dimensions and Internet sites.
The research sources of a multitude of databases, CD-ROMs and indexes were used, including those of the Naval Postgraduate Library, Stanford University, University of California at Berkeley, the Monterey Institute of International Studies, National Defense University (NDU) Library, Pentagon library and the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.2
The bibliography is arranged alphabetically under each subject category by author, or title if no author is indicated. It is categorized into the following broad subject categories, with a brief explanation of each category's scope:
I. Comparative Studies of Information-Based Conflict. Contains citations to publications written either by US authors or foreign nationals concerning I-AW issues in various foreign countries.
II. Organizational Aspects of Information Conflict (nonstate actors and networks). Contains articles or books dealing with network war (netwar), societal conflict and crime, short of war, in which protagonists are organized as "leaderless" networks.
III. Perception Management, Psychological Operations (PSYOP) and Deception Issues. Involves the media component of I-AW, public perception of events, deception's role in doctrine and other related topics.
IV. Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). Includes general articles defining I-AW or describing the multifaceted RMA.
Ahrari, M. Ehssan. "Chinese Prove to be Attentive Students of Information Warfare." Jane's Intelligence Review, October 1997, 469.
Cherkasov, Major-General Aleksandr Vladimirovich. "Russia: Psychological, Information Warfare in Local Conflicts." Nezavisimoye voyennoye obozreniye, 25-31 January 1997, 2, as translated in FBIS-UMA-97-040-S; received via Internet.
Chung-lun, Tai. "TAIWAN: Defense Journal on Information Warfare." Ch'uan-Ch'iu Fang-Wei Tsa-Chih (Defense International), 1 February 1997, 18-23, as translated in FBIS-CHI-97- 069; received via Internet.
Dick, Charles. "Russian Views on Future War - Part 1." Jane's Intelligence Review, September 1993, 390-92; Part 2, October 1993, 451-53; Part 3, November 1993, 488-95. Examines the Russian RMA and how future war will be dominated by precision weaponry, information support (reconnaissance and command, control and communication [C3]) and electronic warfare (EW); addresses the Russian army's future operational and tactical force structure, where the automation of C3 capabilities is seen as essential.
Ebata, Kensuke. "Japan: Journalist on Security, Intelligence Issue." Securitarian (in Japanese), March 1997, 21-24, as translated in FBIS-EAS-97-065; received via Internet. Discusses how information-age technology development is bringing revolutionary changes to military activities and organization.
Fei, Gong. "PRC: Information Age Requires Digitization, Logistical Reform." Jiefangjun bao, 27 August 1996, 5, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-209; received via Internet. Describes war as mainly a confrontation of information, information weaponry and information weaponry systems between two belligerent parties on a digitized battlefield.
Feng, Zhang. "PRC: `Dialogue' on Information Age, State Security." Jiefangjun bao, 6 August 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-182; received via Internet. Provides an excerpt from Guofang daxue xuebao no.7, 1996, of a dialogue between Jiefangjun bao senior editor Li Binyan and IW research expert Shen Weiguang, titled "Socialized Network Trend and State Security Concept."
Fitzgerald, Mary C. "Russian Views on Electronic Signals and Information Warfare." American Intelligence Journal, Spring-Summer 1994, 81-87.
________. "Russian Views on Information Warfare." ARMY, May 1994, 57, et alia (see editor's note).
"France Advances on Infowar Front." Intelligence Newsletter (Le monde du renseignement), 6 June 1996, 1.
Garian, Robert. Information Warfare: Russia, France and the United Kingdom. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, November 1995. Discusses these countries' interest in and concern for the security of information systems and plans for upgrading their electronic infrastructure.
Gill, B. and L. Henley. China and the Revolution in Military Affairs. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), US Army War College (AWC), May 1996. Argues that for a variety of reasons China cannot seize the RMA.
Guomo, Huai. "PRC: Information Technology Said to Alter Nature of Warfare." Zhongguo junshi kexue (China Military Science), 20 February 1996, 22-25, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-130; received via Internet. Article translation titled "On Meeting the Challenge of the New Military Revolution."
Jincheng, Wei. "PRC: Information Warfare With Chinese Characteristics." Jiefangjun bao, 25 June 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-159; received via Internet.
Kipp, Jacob W. "Russian Military Forecasting and the Revolution in Military Affairs: A Case of the Oracle of Delphi or Cassandra?" Journal of Slavic Military Studies, March 1996, 1-45.
Li, Zhou and Bai Lihong. "PRC Army Daily on Weaknesses of Information Warfare." Jiefangjun bao, 9 October 1995, 7, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-014; received via Internet. Article translation titled "Information Warfare Poses Problems."
Manachynskyy, Oleksandr. "Ukraine Strategist Views Information Warfare, Cites US, NATO." Narodna armiya, 1 February 1996, 3-4, as translated in FBIS-UMA-96-040-S; received via Internet. Article translation titled "Information Warfare: Myth and Reality."
Menshikov, Major General Valeriy and Colonel Boris Rodionov. "Russia: National Information Security." Armeyskiy sbornik, October 1996, 88-90, as translated in FBIS-UMA-97-018-S; received via Internet.
Pozhidayev, Dmitriy. "Russia: GRU Analysis: Information War in Pentagon Plans." Zarubezhnoye voyennoye obozreniye, February 1996, 2-4, as translated in FBIS-UMA-96-133-S; received via Internet.
________. "Russia: Present and Future Information War." Armeyskiy sbornik, February 1996, 90-92, as translated in FBIS-UMA-96-101-S; received via Internet. Article translation titled "Computer Aggression in Pentagon Plans."
________. "PRC: Army Paper on Information Warfare." Jiefangjun bao, 25 June 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96- 145; received via Internet.
Renzhao, Cai. "PRC: Article on Defeating Enemy With Information." Jiefangjun bao, 19 March 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-100; received via Internet.
Shenxia, Zheng and Zhang Changzhi. "PRC: Strategic Role of Air Power in Information Era Viewed." Zhongguo junshi kexue (China Military Science), 20 February 1996, 50-56, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-201; received via Internet.
Shouzeng, Zheng. "PRC: Article on Information War, Training." Jiefangjun bao, 9 July 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-168; received via Internet. Article translation titled "Incorporate Research on Information Warfare into Training."
"Taiwan Develops Priorities for EW and IW Development." Jane's Defence Weekly, 21 November 1997, 62.
Thomas, Timothy L. "Russian Information Operations Bibliography," in Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, Summer 1997.
________. "Russian Views on Information-Based Warfare." Airpower Journal X/SE Special Edition 1996, 25-35.
Xin, Liao. "PRC: Article on Seizing Control of Information." Jiefangjun bao, 2 July 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-169; received via Internet. Describes adapting technological and strategic means to take control of information without destroying an opponent's information system.
Yunhua, Zheng and Yu Zhennan. "PRC: Forms, Characteristics of Information Warfare Outlined." Jiefangjun bao, 16 April 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-089; received via Internet.
Zhenxing, Liang. "Information Warfare: Major Influence on China's Defense Modernization." Jisuanji shijie (China Computerworld), 8 April 1996, 123, 125, as translated in FBIS-CST-96-009; received via Internet.
Zhongxing, Bao. "PRC: Army Paper Warns of Potential `Information Overload.' " Jiefangjun bao, 25 June 1996, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-145; received via Internet. Discusses the consequences of so-called information overload: military commanders unable to systematically analyze or correctly handle a large amount of battlefield information, subjected to deceptive information or a large amount of irrelevant information.
Zhuomin, Lei. "PRC: Reforms Needed To Conduct Information Warfare Cited."Jiefangjun bao, 26 December 1995, 6, as translated in FBIS-CHI-96-036; received via Internet. Translation of article titled "Information Warfare and Training of Skilled Commanders."
Alger, John I. "From Hackers to Projectors of Power." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, October 1996, 6-8. Focuses on specific threat levels regarding information war-the prevailing form of competition and conflict in the world today.
Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt. The Advent of Netwar. Santa Monica, CA: National Defense Research Institute, RAND Corporation, 1996. A 118-page report prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, it details netwar as "conflicts in which a combatant is organized along networked lines or employs networks for operational control and other communications."
Barnett, Jeffery R. "Defeating Insurgents with Technology." Airpower Journal, Summer 1996, 69-74.
Eisen, S. Network Warfare: It's Not Just for Hackers Anymore. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, Naval War College (NWC), June 1995. Analyzes netwar as the latest tool in the I-AW toolbox that targets enemy computer networks supporting both military and civilian functions such as communications, logistics, transportation and other computer-controlled networks; discusses netwar's defensive features.
Hafner, Katie and John Markoff. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier. Rev ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
Littleton, Matthew J. Information Age Terrorism: Toward Cyberterror. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, December 1995. This 150-page study analyzes terrorism and terrorists in the information age; covers conventional terrorism, technoterrorism (using classic weapons to destroy infrastructure targets and cause disruption in cyberspace) and cyberterrorism (operating new weapons-malicious software, electromagnetic and microwave weapons-to destroy data in cyberspace); discusses possibilities of poor states sponsoring this terrorism; explores the shift toward I-AW across the conflict spectrum and its implications for terrorism and policy-makers responses.
Luoma, William M. Netwar: The Other Side of Information Warfare. Newport, RI: Department of Operations, NWC, 8 February 1994. Discusses the network or netwar concept complementing command and control warfare (C2W) as an I-AW strategy that can provide a vehicle for action in a scenario where applying military force is not appropriate or during operations other than war; describes the need for netwar strategy to require coordinating all elements of national power to counter and neutralize the power of network adversaries.
Metz, Steven. The Future of Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 10 December 1993. Discusses emerging insurgency forms and the application of I-AW to these environments.
Quittner, Joshua and Michelle Slatta. Masters of Deception: The Gang that Ruled Cyberspace. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Rathmell, Andrew. "Netwar in the Gulf." Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, 29-32. Examines how I-AW may affect the Persian Gulf states.
"Spies and Spooks On the Internet." Washington Technology, 24 August 1995, 6.
Ward, Mark. "Sabotage in Cyberspace." New Scientist, 14 September 1996: 12-13. Alleges that the US government exaggerates the threat to national security due to hackers who usually indulge in ethical hacking for intellectual thrills or curiosity.
Arnett, Peter. Live From the Battlefield. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. Describes the author's 35 years of reporting from numerous war zones and provides insight into the media component of I-AW.
Gallagher, Tom. "Electronic Deception Reflections." American Intelligence Journal, December 1991, 51+.
"Getting Inside the Enemy's Head." Intelligence Newsletter (Le monde du renseignement), 3 October 1996, 7. Discusses the possibilities of cognitive warfare-mind control using acoustical, optical and electromagnetic fields to interfere with an enemy's biological processes.
Greenberg, Bradley S. and Walter Gantz, ed. Desert Storm and the Mass Media. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1993. Contains scholarly articles on Gulf War coverage and the effects on public perceptions, both in the United States and abroad.
Koch, James R. "Operation Fortitude: The Backbone of Deception." Military Review, March 1992, 66-77. Describes deception's role in current doctrine and a historical case study of Operation Bodyguard and the lessons learned.
Lafferty, Brad et al. "The Effect of Media Information on Enemy Capability: A Model for Conflict." Proteus, Spring 1994, 3-10.
McCleskey, Edward R. "Deception and Special Operations." American Intelligence Journal, December 1991, 45+.
Neuman, Johanna. "The Media's Impact on International Affairs Then and Now," SAIS Review, Winter-Spring 1996, 109-23.
O'Neill, Richard P. Toward a Methodology for Perception Management. Newport, RI: Center for Advanced Research, NWC, June 1989.
O'Shea, Cornelius. "Framework For the Study of Deception." American Intelligence Journal, December 1991, 35+.
Ricks, Charles W. The Military-News Media Relationship: Thinking Forward. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 1 December 1993. Covers preparing public affairs concepts of operation by commanders.
Smetek, Ronald et al. "Electronic Deception and Maskirovka." American Intelligence Journal, December 1991, 61+.
Surikov, Anton. "Russia: Pravda Decries West's Information, Psychological War." Pravda Pyat, 18 January 1997, 3, as translated in FBIS-SOV-97-013. Alleges that by "using the latest achievements of practical social psychology and its modern potential for manipulating the consciousness and behavior of the great masses of people, foreign PSYOP warfare centers through their agents of influence in the electronic mass media are foisting on Russian society political and economic solutions which are contrary to the country's national interests but beneficial to the United States and the West."
Torres, Herminio. Management Meaning: The Role of Psychological Operations and Public Diplomacy in a National Information Warfare Strategy. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, December 1995. A 59-page study discussing the increased value of strategic political communications and the importance of both military PSYOP and public diplomacy are crucial to ensure that national strategic objectives are obtained by helping shape international perceptions about the United States, its way of life and its national interests. Additionally, it describes the need for a US national-level agency tasked and authorized to devise, coordinate and implement a national information strategy.
US Army Field Manual (FM) 90-2, Military Deception in Army Operations (working draft). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 20 March 1997.
Ablong, M.A. "The RMA-Implications for the ADF." Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) Journal, November 1995, 11+.
Adams, J.A. Future Warriors: Special Operations Forces in the 21st Century. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, research paper, 7 May 1996. Analyzes "if" and "how," with the advent of the high-tech battlefield, special operations forces will wage I-AW.
Aftergood, Steven. "The Soft-Kill Fallacy," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, September-October 1994, 40-45.
Alger, John I. "Declaring Information War: Early Training Crucial to Awareness." Jane's International Defense Review, July 1996, 54-55.
Anderson, Gary W. and Terry C. Pierce. "Leaving the Technocratic Tunnel." Joint Force Quarterly (JFQ), Winter 1995-1996, 69-75.
Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Strategy, April-June 1993, 141-65. Presents two new concepts about future warfare: cyberwar and netwar. They define cyberwar as "conducting and preparing to conduct military operations according to information-related principles. It means disrupting, if not destroying, information and communications systems." They describe netwar as "information-related conflict at a grand level between nations or societies. It means trying to disrupt, damage or modify what a target population knows or thinks it knows about itself and the world around it."
Auster, Bruce. "Info Wars: When Knowledge is Military Power." U.S. News & World Report, 24 October 1994, 37.
Bacevich, A.J. "Just War Theory and High Tech: Virtual War." Current, November 1996, 19+. Argues that the RMA is problematic and that the likely emergence of an new form of conflict called "virtual war" raises new ethical questions.
________. "Preserving the Well-Bred Horse." National Interest, Fall 1994, 43-49. Presents skepticism concerning the military-technical revolution and contends that soldiers are blinding themselves to powerful elements that they must come to terms with.
Baines, Thomas. "Weapons of Mass Protection: Nonlethality, Information Warfare and Airpower in the Age of Chaos." Airpower Journal, Spring 1995, 15+.
Barwinczak, Patricia M. "The Information Revolution and Warfare 2020." Strategic Review 25/2 (1997), 74+.
Bateman, Robert L. "Force XXI and the Death of Auftragstaktik." Armor, January-February 1996, 13-15. Addresses the impact of I-AW on leadership.
Beaumont, R. "OMTE: An Alternative Paradigm to `The RMA.'" Defense Analysis 11/3 (1995), 322-26.
Bergman, Kenneth R. "Space and the Revolution in Military Affairs." Marine Corps Gazette, May 1995, 58-60.
Berkowitz, Bruce D. "Warfare in the Information Age." Issues in Science and Technology, Fall 1995, 59-66. Discusses the benefits of I-AW and calls for the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop new military strategies to counter threats presented by I-AW to national security.
Betts, Richard. "The Downside of the Cutting Edge." National Interest, Fall 1996, 80-84. Asserts that the RMA has several drawbacks and possible unexpected effects.
Black, Peter. "Soft Kill: Fighting Infrastructure Wars in the 21st Century." Wired, July-August 1993, 49-50.
Black, Steven K. This Page under Construction: Information Warfare in the Post-Cold War World. Pittsburgh, PA: Matthew B. Ridgway Center for International Security Studies, University of Pittsburgh, 1996.
Blaker, Jim. "Owens Legacy: The Former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Laid the Groundwork for a Revolution." Armed Forces Journal International, July 1996, 20-22.
Blank, Stephen J. "Preparing for the Next War: Reflections on the RMA." Strategic Review, Spring 1996, 17-25.
Boslego, David V. Relationship of Information to the Relative Combat Power Model in Force XXI Engagements. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), US Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC), 18 December 1995. Analyzes two future-oriented US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet publications, (Pam) 525-5, Force XXI Operations: A Concept for the Evolution of Full-Dimensional Operations for the Strategic Army of the Early Twenty-First Century; and draft Field Manual (FM) 100-6, Information Operations; both of which conclude the current combat power model adequately addresses information and should not be changed.
Bowdish, Randall G. "Revolution in Military Affairs: The Sixth Generation." Military Review, November-December 1995, 26-33.
Bracken, Paul. "The Military After Next." The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 1993, 157-74.
Bracken, Paul and R.H. Alcala. Whither the RMA: Two Perspectives on Tomorrow's Army. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 22 July 1994. Provides two different views of the US Army's future. One view suggests that its ability to stay intellectually ahead of technology will perhaps be its greatest challenge in the next century.
Bray, C.L. SCORPION: A Low Cost, Low Risk, Low Asset Strategy For Resolving Low Level Conflicts. Research Report. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, April 1996. Proposes a strategy that combines precision-guided munitions, stealth aircraft, I-AW, PSYOP and unconventional warfare into an integrated method of fighting.
Brown, Frederic J. The U.S. Army in Transition II: Landpower in the Information Age. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1993.
Buchan, Glenn C. Information War and the Air Force: Wave of the Future? Current Fad? Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, March 1996.
Bunker, Robert J. "Generations, Waves and Epochs: Modes of Warfare and the RPMA [Revolution in Political and Military Affairs]." Airpower Journal, Spring 1996, 18-28. Deals with the evolution of information-based future war in the United States and perspectives on the RPMA.
________. "The Tofflerian Paradox." Military Review, May-June 1995, 99-102. Analyses futurist views on warfare.
________. "Transition to Fourth Epoch War." Marine Corps Gazette, September 1994, 20+.
Burnette, Gerald. "Information: Battlefield of the Future." Surface Warfare, July-August 1995, 8-9.
Caldwell, Warren Jr. "Promises, Promises: The Technical Revolution in Military Affairs May not Live up to All the Promises." Proceedings of the US Naval Institute, January 1996, 54-57.
Campen, Alan D. "Information Warfare is Rife With Promise, Peril." Signal, November 1993, 19-20.
Capaccio, Toney and M. Greczyn. "Warfare in the Information Age." Popular Science, July 1996, 52-57. Surveys the new high-tech equipment ranging from intelligence-gathering aircraft to mine-detection equipment.
Carroll, Bonnie C. "Information Warfare: Military Doctrine and Economic Reality." Bulletin of the American Society for Information, October 1996, 5+.
Cerjan, Paul G. and Robert B. Clark. "NDU Develops a Discipline in Information-Based Warfare." ARMY, May 1994, 18+.
Clodfelter, Mark and John M. Fawcett Jr. "RMA and Air Force Roles, Missions and Doctrine." Parameters, Summer 1995, 22-29.
Cohen, Eliot A. "A Revolution in Warfare." Foreign Affairs, March-April 1996, 37-54.
Concept for Future Joint Operations: Expanding JV 2010's Ideas. Preliminary draft. Washington, DC: Joint Warfighting Center, 21 March 1997. Contains chapters on the impact of technology, information superiority and joint operations in the information age.
Cook, Wyatt C. Information Warfare: A New Dimension in the Application of Air and Space Power. Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB), AL: Air War College, 1994. Discusses the emergence of I-AW and how its application to air and space doctrine will forever change warfare's form and conduct. Also concludes that we must leverage technology to harness the information technology (IT) explosion's benefits.
Cooper, Jeffrey R. Another View of the Revolution in Military Affairs. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 15 July 1994. Urges defense planners to determine what strategic-as opposed to operational-benefits might be derived from the RMA. Cautions against being so focused on RMA technology as to divert attention from the critical relationships between purpose, strategy, doctrine, operational innovation and organizational adaptation.
Cooper, Pat and Jason Glashow, "New Army Doctrine Shaped by Info Warfare." Army Times, 15 January 1996, 11. Discusses US Army doctrine to train soldiers and their commanders in the systems and techniques of I-AW, how its implementation will work and the impact on the Geneva Conventions.
Cordtz, Dan. "War In the 21st Century: The Digitized Battlefield." Financial World, 29 August 1995, 47-49.
Cornerstones of Information Warfare. Washington, DC: Department of the Air Force, 1995. Clarifies why the competition for information is suddenly a riveting national security topic. It describes how Air Force doctrine should evolve to accommodate I-AW, with the ultimate goal being a sound foundation on which to base the inevitable changes in organizing, training, equipping and employing military forces and capabilities.
Coroalles, Anthony M. "On War in the Information Age: A Conversation with Carl von Clausewitz." ARMY, May 1996, 24-34.
Curtis, Ian G.S. "Misinformed about Information War? The Three-Wave Theory is under Fire." Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, March 1996, 4-5.
Czerwinski, Thomas J. "The Third Wave: What the Tofflers Never Told You." Strategic Forum no. 72. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, April 1996. Argues that the Third Wave is marked not by a paradigm shift, but the utter lack of a paradigm. Hence, discussions about the RMA should reflect the specific Third Wave conditions. In this regard the Tofflers' analysis is incomplete.
Davis, Norman C. "Information-Based Revolution in Military Affairs." Strategic Review, Winter 1996, 43-53.
________. "The Marine Corps and Information Operations." Marine Corps Gazette, April 1997, 16-22.
DeGroat, Arthur S. and David C. Nilse. "Information and Combat Power on the Force XXI Battlefield." Military Review, November-December 1995, 56-62.
Dempsey, T.A. Riding the Tiger: Exploiting the RMA to Transform the Battlefield. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, 1996. Contends that the ongoing RMA will require fundamental revisions of warfighting doctrine and supporting tactics, techniques and procedures and that military institutions must transform warfighting methodology to optimize digital and automated systems.
Department of the Air Force. Information Warfare. Washington, DC: Air Force Doctrine Division, Department of the Air Force, 1996.
DiNardo, R.L. and Daniel J. Hughes. "Some Cautionary Thoughts on Information Warfare." Airpower Journal, December 1995, 69-79. Discusses the US military's tendency to become overly involved in passing trends and emphasizes the importance of having disciplined soldiers as well as effective weapon systems.
Doyle, Kevin J. Information Operations: A Look at Emerging Army Doctrine and its Operational Implications. Fort Leavenworth, KS: CGSC, 19 May 1995. Describes how the "information revolution" is leading the RMA and examines the changing information environment's operational implications, the Army's doctrinal response to information operations (IO) and the utility of IO.
Dunn, P.J. "Time x Technology x Tactics = RMA." Australian Defence Force Journal 116 (1996), 11-18.
Echevarria, Antulio II. "War, Politics and RMA-The Legacy of Clausewitz." JFQ, Winter 1995-1996, 76-80.
Echevarria, Antulio II and John M. Shawl. "The New Military Revolution: Post-Industrial Change." Parameters, Winter 1992- 1993, 70-79.
Elam, Donald E. Attacking the Infrastructure: Exploring Potential Uses of Offensive Information Warfare. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, June 1996. Intended as a general educational introduction to I-AW for military officers and other concerned professionals.
Emmett, Peter. "Information Mania-A New Manifestation of Gulf War Syndrome?" RUSI Journal, February 1996, 19-26. Proposes a taxonomy for I-AW.
"EW Expands into Information Warfare." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 October 1994, 47-48. Discusses EW as merging with other missions to become I-AW and that Desert Storm revealed the need for information dominance in future conflicts. Also describes new technology that could have I-AW applications.
Felker, Ed. "Information Warfare: A View of the Future." A Common Perspective: Joint Warfighting Center Newsletter, September 1995, 17-18.
FM 100-6: Information Operations. Fort Monroe, VA: TRADOC, 15 April 1996.
Fogleman, Ronald R. "Information Operations: The Fifth Dimension of Warfare." Defense Issues, 1995, 1-3.
________. "Information Revolution: The Changing Nature of Warfare." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 April 1997, 31+.
Franks, Frederick M. Jr. "Winning the Information War." Vital Speeches of the Day, 15 May 1994, 453-58. Discusses two phenomena in winning the information war and a history of revolutionary changes in the external information environment and IO on the battlefield from the Civil War through Operation Desert Storm.
Gallogly-Staver, Erin J. and Raymond S. Hilliard. "Information Warfare: OPFOR Doctrine-An Integrated Approach." Military Intelligence, July-September 1997, 53-55.
Gibish, Jane. Revolution in Military Affairs. A Selected Bibliography. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, May 1996. Contains citations on four new warfare areas: IW, precision strike, dominating maneuver and space warfare.
Given, K. "A Revolution in Military Affairs-The Stuff of Fables?" Australian Defence Force Journal, January 1996, 5+.
Grier, Peter. "Information Warfare." Air Force Magazine, March 1995, 34-37. Discusses how DOD planners are developing revolutionary information systems to fight future cyberwars.
Guthrie, Samuel A. Knowledge-Based Operations: The "So What" of Information Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: CGSC, 21 April 1995. Analyzes knowledge-based operations, traces the evolution in battlefield frameworks, describes the knowledge-based framework and presents a concept for knowledge-based operations. Also discusses potential impacts of the new framework and knowledge-based operations on campaign and joint operations planning.
Haeni, Reto. "Information Warfare: An Introduction." Soldier-Scholar, Fall 1996, 3-10.
Hammes, Thomas X. "Evolution of War: The Fourth Generation." Marine Corps Gazette, September 1994, 35-38+.
Harley, Jeffrey A. Role of Information Warfare: Truth and Myths. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, NWC, 1996. Examines three myths concerning I-AW: omniscience, obsolescence of armed forces and information itself as a new center of gravity (COG); discusses the pronounced effect of ITs upon the operational commander.
Hartzog, William W. "Force XXI to Army XXI: Synergy For the Next Century." ARMY, May 1996, 19-22.
Harvey, J. "The RAAF and the Revolution in Military Affairs." RUSI Journal, November 1995, 23+.
Hauser, W.L. "Profession-Management for a Revolution in Military Affairs." Defense Analysis 11/3 (1995), 316-17.
Herman, Paul F. Jr. "The Revolution in `Military' Affairs." Strategic Review, Spring 1996, 26-30.
Hill, Martin R. "It is Time to Get on with Information Warfare." Defense Intelligence Journal, Spring 1996, 25-41.
Holzer, Robert. "Shalikashvili Offers 2010 Battlefield Vision." Defense News, 6 May 1996, 4+.
Howard, M. and J.F. Guilmartin. Two Historians in Technology and War. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 20 July 1994. Analyzes the conference "The Revolution in Military Affairs: Defining an Army for the 21st Century" held in April 1994 at the AWC's SSI.
Huston, J.V. Revolution in Military Affairs and Operational Maneuver from the Sea. Newport, RI: NWC, June 1995. Examines whether operational maneuver from the sea (OMFTS) is an appropriate concept for exploiting new technology; concludes that with a few changes, OMFTS can leverage the new RMA technology for naval operations.
"Information Dominance Anchors Vision of Joint Warfare in 2010." National Defense no. 523 (1996), 12-14.
Isensee, Ernst K. Impacts on the Operational Commander in the Information Age. Newport, RI: Department of Operations, NWC, 13 February 1995. Examines the indeterminate influence of information-age technology on the means of conducting warfare as having a significant impact on the way an operational commander employs his forces. Concludes that, paradoxically, the information-age commander will find a greater level of uncertainty and inflexibility to conduct major operations and campaigns with knowledge-based forces.
"Is There a Revolution in Military Affairs?" Strategic Survey (1995-1996), 29-39.
"It's Not The Same Old Army." Armed Forces Journal International, October 1995, 38+. Addresses how advances in information-age technologies are driving changes in how the future US Army will conduct operations across strategic, operational and tactical levels.
Jablonsky, David. Owl of Minerva Flies at Twilight: Doctrinal Change and Continuity and the Revolution in Military Affairs. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, May 94. Argues that continuity is also an essential RMA ingredient. Concludes that problems, as in past RMAs, have more to do with politics and civil-military relations and cannot be fully addressed by military doctrine alone.
________. "US Military Doctrine and the Revolution in Military Affairs." Parameters, Autumn 1994, 18-36.
Jensen, Owen E. "Information Warfare: Principles of Third-Wave War." Airpower Journal, Winter 1994, 35-44. Analyzes the proposed principles for the application of I-AW to specific scenarios.
Jones, Jeffrey B. "Theater Information Strategies." Military Review, November 1994, 48-50.
Kaminski, Paul G. "Revolution in Defense Logistics." Defense Issues 10/107 (1995), 1-6.
Kanuck, S.P. "Information Warfare-New Challenges for Public International Law." Harvard International Law Journal 37/1 (1996), 272-92.
Kiras, James. "Information Warfare and the Face of Conflict in the Twenty-first Century." Peacekeeping & International Relations, July-August 1996, 8-10. Focuses on defining I-AW as an integral part of conflict planning in the 21st century and discusses the lack of knowledge about the real capabilities of many emerging IW technologies.
Kish, Steve C. "Do We Need an Information Warrior? Marine Corps Gazette, January 1997, 20-22. Asserts that the US Marine Corps needs to begin developing I-AW specialists now.
Kraus, George F. Jr. "Information Warfare in 2015." Proceedings of the US Naval Institute, August 1995, 42-54.
Krepinevich, Andrew F. "Cavalry to Computer: The Pattern in Military Revolutions." The National Interest, Fall 1994, 30-42.
________. "Keeping Pace with the Military-Technological Revolution." Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 1994, 23-29. Urges the United States to be prepared to exploit an emerging military-technological revolution under way and develop strategy accordingly rather than retain a defense posture based on the Cold-War situation.
Kuehl, Dan. "Defining Information Power." Strategic Forum no. 115. Washington, DC. Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, June 1997. Contends that DOD definitions of IW and IO are dysfunctional. Defines IW as "those offensive and defensive warfighting actions in or via the information environment to control or exploit it." Defines IO as "the range of military and government operations to protect and exploit the information environment."
_______. "Joint Information Warfare: An Information-Age Paradigm for Jointness." Strategic Forum no. 105. Washington, DC. Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, March 1997. Concludes that concepts of "jointness" that focus on integrating the operations of DOD's four military services are too narrow for I-AW and IO.
Laughridge, G. "Recent and Not-so-recent Thinking on Information Operations and the Knowledge War." Army Communicator 20/2 (1995), 32-40.
Leahy, P.F. "The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Australian Army." RUSI Journal, November 1995, 20+.
Lesser, H.K. Revolution in Military Affairs and Its Effect on the Future Army. Newport, RI: NWC, 24 June 1994. Provides an extensive review of published and unpublished material on the RMA and the synthesis of that material into appropriate recommendations about future Army doctrine, technology and force structure, which have the potential to significantly increase the Army's combat power.
Lewonoski, Mark C. "Information War." Essays On Strategy-IX Washington, DC: NDU Press, 1993. Analyzes information war principles and their relationship to classical principles of war. Contends that the principles must be integrated into US doctrine, force development and force employment strategies.
Libicki, Martin. "The Emerging Primacy of Information." Orbis, Spring 1996, 261-76.
________. What Is Information Warfare? Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, August 1995. Spells out seven forms of I-AW conflicts: C2W; intelligence-based warfare-design, protection and denial of systems that seek sufficient knowledge to dominate the battlespace; electronic-radio-electronic or cryptographic techniques; psychological warfare; "hacker" warfare-in which computer systems are attacked; economic IW-blocking information or channeling it to pursue economic dominance; and cyberwarfare-various futuristic scenarios.
Libicki, Martin and James A. Hazlett. "Do We Need An Information Corps?" JFQ, Autumn 1993, 88-97. Proposes establishing an information corps in which "a separate corps and an associated command structure linking operations and intelligence will facilitate effective joint operations, promote the IW revolution, unify the disparate information elements and give them an identity, create a common ethos for information warriors and provide a unified interface with civilian information infrastructures."
Lind, William S. et al. "Fourth Generation Warfare: Another Look." Marine Corps Gazette, December 1994, 34-37.
"Looking In All The Wrong Places?" Armed Forces Journal International, May 1995, 38+. Criticizes the US military establishment as being absorbed by the coming RMA but preparing for the wrong revolution.
Luttwak, Edward N. "Toward Post-Heroic Warfare." Foreign Affairs, May-June 1995, 109-22.
Macgregor, Douglas A. "Future Battle: The Merging Levels of War." Parameters, Winter 1992-1993, 33-47. Discusses how technology will alter future battlefield dimensions of time and space to the extent that the three levels of war-strategic, operational and tactical-will merge into a single new structure for the integration of complex air-land-sea combat operations.
Mahnken, Thomas G. "War in the Information Age." JFQ, Winter 1995-1996, 39-43.
Mann, Edward C. III. "Desert Storm: The First Information War?" Airpower Journal, Winter 1994, 4-14.
Marr, Patrick M. Information Warfare and the Operational Art. Newport, RI: NWC, 12 February 1996. States that individually, the components of C2W-operations security, PSYOP, EW, military deception and physical destruction-are not indicative of the information revolution and that continued efforts to expand the military strategy of IW beyond the current bounds of C2W may result in a technology-strategy mismatch or disconnect.
Mazarr, Michael J. Revolution in Military Affairs: A Framework for Defense Planning. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 10 June 1994. Argues that the current RMA is part of a larger sociopolitical transformation. Offers a framework of four principles for defense planning to understand the ambiguities and complexities presented by the RMA.
Mazarr, Michael J. et al. The Military Technical Revolution: A Structural Framework. Washington, DC: Center For Strategic and International Studies, 1993. Focuses on the specific US technologies, doctrines and types of forces needed in future engagements. Defines the military technical revolution as "a fundamental advance in technology, doctrine or organization that renders existing methods of conducting warfare obsolete."
McCaffrie, J. "Elegant Irrelevance: Fourth Generation Warfare." Parameters, Autumn 1993, 51-60.
________."The Revolution in Military Affairs-Its Impact on Navies." RUSI Journal, November 1995, 15+.
McCain, Steven A. Information Dominance: Special Operations Forces in MOOTW. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, 1997.
Metz, Steven and James Kievit. Revolution in Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 25 July 1994. Asserts that to date, opportunities provided by the RMA have attracted for more attention than its risks, costs and unintended consequences and that in the arena of conflict short of war, these risks, costs and unintended consequences may outweigh potential benefits.
________. Strategy and the Revolution in Military Affairs: From Theory to Policy. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 27 June 1995. Posits that in order to master RMA, theoretical underpinnings, strategic implications, core assumptions and normative choices must be debated. Provides a set of hypotheses regarding the configuration and process of RMAs and examines potential policy implications.
Minehart, Robert F. Information Warfare: The Organizational Dimension. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, February 1996. Points out that a clear vision for the implementation of IW within DOD and the US government as a whole has yet to emerge. Addresses the role of organizations as a key IW component and provides specific recommendations on how to better organize the IW effort.
Mollick, E. "A Gentler War: The Debate over Non-Lethal Weapons." Harvard International Review 18/4 (1996), 46-47.
Morgan, Brent A. Employment of Indications and Warning Intelligence Methods to Forecast a Potentially Hostile Revolution in Military Affairs. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, September 1995. A 142-page thesis describing two distinct visions of a future RMA that is beginning to emerge: the integration of precision-guided munitions and superior command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) capabilities and I-AW. Urges development of US ability to detect and accurately evaluate any efforts by a potential adversary to achieve an RMA.
Morris, Chris et al. "Weapons of Mass Protection: Nonlethality, Information Warfare and Airpower in the Age of Chaos." Airpower Journal, Spring 1995, 15-29. Examines the use of air power as a weapon of mass protection, the changing role of air power since the Cold War's end, characteristics of nonlethal weapons and other issues.
Morrocco, John D. "U.S. Military Eyes Revolutionary Change." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 May 1995, 22-23. Reports that a growing number of policy makers are convinced that the RMA is a real phenomenon. Discusses its two defining characteristics-the primacy of air forces and the precise targeting of modern munitions.
Mowery, Beverly P. "Information Determines the Battlespace as World Changes Camouflage Threats." Signal, April 1996, 65-69.
Neilson, Robert E., ed. Sun Tzu and Information Warfare. Washington, DC: Information Resources Management College, NDU, 1997. Contains the following articles: William R. Fast, "Knowledge Strategies: Balancing Ends, Ways and Means in the Information Age"; Charles B. Everett et al., "The Silicon Spear: An Assessment of Information Based Warfare and US National Security"; Matthew G. Devost et al., "Information Terrorism: Can You Trust Your Toaster?"; Brian Fredericks, "Information Warfare: The Organizational Dimension"; Adolph Carlson, "A Chapter not Yet Written: Information Management and the Challenge of Battle Command"; Steven G. Fox, "Unintended Consequences of Joint Digitization"; and John H. Miller, "Information Warfare: Issues and Perspectives."
New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century: Space Applications Volume. Washington, DC: Scientific Advisory Board (Air Force), 1995. Discusses the challenge of how to efficiently manage US space assets consistent with rapid commercial technology evolution and limited defense budgets and the need for battlefield information dominance.
Nowowiejski, Dean A. Concepts of Information Warfare in Practice: General George S. Patton and the Third Army Information Service, August-December, 1944. Fort Leavenworth, KS: CGSC, March 1995. Examines historical examples of I-AW to gain insight into its current practice. Concludes that Patton aggressively sought information advantage as a battle commander. Also suggests more emphasis in the current concept of I-AW on improving the ability of commanders and staffs to process information and on reemphasizing the human dimensions of IO through refined professional development.
Nye, Joseph S. Jr. and William A. Owens. "America's Information Edge." Foreign Affairs, March 1996, 20-36.
Olbrys, Elizabeth B. Information Culture in DoD: Preparing For The Third Wave. Washington, DC: Industrial College of the Armed Forces, April 1994. A 36-page report describing the need for DOD to have swift access to current, reliable information as its most basic requirement and for it to make major cultural changes achieving enterprise integration, embracing the culture of process improvement and accepting a radical reorganization to realize information superiority.
Owens, William A. "The American Revolution in Military Affairs." JFQ, Winter 1995-1996, 37-8.
________. "The Emerging Systems of Systems," Military Review, May-June 1995, 15-19.
________. "JROC: Harnessing the Revolution in Military Affairs." JFQ, Summer 1994, 55+.
________. "Report on the JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) and the Revolution in Military Affairs." Marine Corps Gazette, August 1995, 46-53.
Patton, James H. Jr. "Keeping up with the Revolution." Proceedings of the US Naval Institute, July 1996, 39-42.
Pears, Andrew H. Planning for the Information Campaign. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Institute of Technology, May 1996. Discusses Air Force doctrine being modified to include three new roles and missions related specifically to I-AW. Recommends that information campaign planners examine communications network survivability, friendly and enemy COGs, satellite system capabilities and vulnerabilities, the possible effects of the media and specific user requirements.
Petersen, J.L. "Info War-The Next Generation: Large-scale Conflict will Revolve around Manipulating Information-Changing an Adversary's Behavior without Firing a Shot." Proceedings of the US Naval Institute 123/1 (1997), 60-63.
Poole, James A. Challenge of Netwar for the Operational Commander. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, NWC, 6 March 1996. Describes netwar as targeting military or civilian "nonweapon" computer networks to gain a military advantage while protecting one's own systems from attack. Presents an overview of netwar concepts, its benefits for the commander, the defensive and offensive decisions that must be made and some prescriptions for the future.
Power, R. "Is `Information Warfare' Just Another Buzzword?" Computer Security Journal 11/2 (1995), 63-74.
Rader, Karl A. Blockades and Cyberblocks: In Search of Doctrinal Purity: Will Maritime Interdiction Work in Information Age Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: SAMS, CGSC, 19 May 1995. Examines the blockade as both a current tool and a concept suitable to I-AW. Proposes the doctrinal concept of cyberblock-the blockade of information transmission media as a Third Wave flexible deterrent option.
Reed, E.P. Power, Paradigms and Perspective: Framework of Opportunity in the Revolution in Military Affairs. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Academy, 2 June 1995. A 137-page thesis adopting an adversary's perspective to consider the RMA and outlines a new intellectual framework for war.
Revolution in Military Affairs. A Selected Bibliography. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, May 1996.
Riccardelli, Richard F. "The Information and Intelligence Revolution." Military Review, September-October 1995, 82-87. Describes an approach to armed conflict focusing on managing and using information in all its forms, applications over the entire national security continuum from peace to war and information paradigm shifts.
Rhode, William E. "What is Info Warfare? Before Long, It May Become a Decisive Form of War." Proceedings of the US Naval Institute, February 1996, 34-38.
Ritcheson, Philip L. "Future of `Military Affairs': Revolution or Evolution?" Strategic Review, Spring 1996, 31-40.
Rodgers, James L. "Information Warfare: Nothing New under the Sun." Marine Corps Gazette, April 1997, 23-29.
Roos, John G. "Infotech Infopower." Armed Forces Journal International, June 1994, 31-36.
Rothrock, John. "Information Warfare: Time for Some Constructive Skepticism." American Intelligence Journal, Spring-Summer 1994, 71-76.
Scott, William B. "Information Warfare Policies Called Critical to National Security." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 October 1996, 60-62. Discusses why US leaders continue to wrestle with defining IW, what agency should be its focal point, vulnerability of US computer systems and principles and facts extrapolated from the report New World Vistas.
Sexton, Joanne. A Combatant Commander's Organizational View of Information Warfare/Command and Control Warfare. Newport, RI: NWC, 16 June 1995. Discusses the need to fully understand the ramifications of I-AW/C2W issues such as why the United States must have a national information policy; what organization should take the lead and who should have the responsibility to prevent redundant I-AW programs; solving these issues will dictate what future organization and role the military will have in I-AW.
Sherman, Jason. "Rush To Digitization: Has the Electronic Battlefield Been Oversold?" Armed Forces Journal International, February 1996, 40-42.
Singer, Abe and Scott Rowell. Information Warfare: An Old Operational Concept with New Implications. Strategic Forum no. 99. Washington, DC. Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, December 1996.
Singh, Ajay. "Time: The New Dimension in War." JFQ, Winter 1995-1996, 56-61.
Sloan, S.E. Revolution in Military Affairs and the Politics of Innovation in the U.S. Navy. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, December 1994. Reviews past theories of military and naval innovation in an effort to draw lessons from which today's naval leaders can foster innovation in the US Navy.
Smith, Kevin B. Crisis and Opportunity of Information War. Fort Leavenworth, KS: SAMS, CGSC, 6 May 1994. A 69-page monograph focusing on the possibility of defeating any and all enemies with an information-intensive force; identifies the major technological "benchmarks" that must be achieved to enable a purely Third Wave force; uses case studies to show current IT uses.
Smullen, Robert J. "Infantryman's RMA." Marine Corps Gazette, January 1996, 22-23.
Starry, Michael D. and Charles W. Arneson. "FM 100-6: Information Operations." Military Review, November-December 1996, 2-15.
Stech, Frank J. "Sociopolitical Stresses and the RMA." Parameters, Summer 1995, 47-54.
Steele, Robert D. "Smart Nations: Achieving National Security and National Competitiveness in the Age of Information." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, October 1996, 8-10. Addresses three critical aspects of waging war and maintaining peace in cyberspace and four elements of national defense and national competitiveness in the information age.
Stein, George J. "Information Warfare." Airpower Journal, Spring 1995, 30-39. Analyzes the IW concept, importance of developing an IW strategy and US Air Force IW doctrine.
Stix, Gary. "Fighting Future Wars." Scientific American, December 1995, 92-98. Discusses the disparity between large-scale technological war and the realities of low-level conflict, electronic intelligence, I-AW and Tofflerian wave theory.
"Strategic Information Warfare." The Futurist 31/5 (1997), 14+.
Struble, Dan. "What is Command and Control Warfare?" National War College Review, Summer 1995, 89-98.
Sullivan, Gordon R. and James M. Dubik. "War in the Information Age." Military Review, April 1994, 46-62. Describes information-age characteristics, its impact on the conduct of warfare and building information-age requirements of speed and precision into the US Army.
________. War in the Information Age. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, 1994.
Sullivan, M.P. Revolution in Military Affairs: Operational Fires on the Future Battlefield. Strategy Research Report. Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, 5 April 1996. Discusses operational fire, sensor and C4I systems and shows that their increased capability will create a "fatal visibility" on the future battlefield.
Szafranski, Richard A. "Theory of Information Warfare: Preparing for 2020." Airpower Journal, Spring 1995, 56-65. Analyzes the concept and complexity of I-AW, power of information weapons, relationship of warfare to knowledge and belief systems and targeting the epistemology of the enemy.
"The Revolution in Military Affairs." Strategic Forum no. 11. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, NDU, November 1994.
Thomas, Charles W. "Information Age and the Coming Training Revolution." Military Intelligence, July-September 1995, 2-3.
Tilford, E.H. Revolution in Military Affairs: Prospects and Cautions. Carlisle Barracks, PA: SSI, AWC, 23 June 1995. Reviews the results of change during past RMAs; warns against becoming too entranced with RMA sophisticated technologies.
Tirpak, John A. "New World of Information Warfare." Air Force Magazine, June 1996, 30-35. Discusses the Air Force's mainstreaming of I-AW to involve all aspects of the mission.
Toffler, Alvin and Heidi. War and Anti-War: Making Sense of Today's Global Chaos. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.
Torrens, L. Future Warfare: The Direct Link between Strategy and Tactics. Newport, RI: NWC, February 1995. Discusses changes in warfare resulting from the changing threat environment and new technological capabilities and the need to overcome the difficulties and vulnerabilities of I-AW.
TRADOC Pam 525-69. Concept for Information Operations. Fort Monroe, VA: TRADOC, 1 August 1995. Describes the importance of information and how to win the information war in military operations into the 21st century. Also details how information contributes to friendly mission success as an integral part of joint, combined, multinational or interagency operations.
Tritten, J.J. Revolutions in Military Affairs, Paradigm Shifts and Doctrine. Final Report, September 1994-February 1995. Norfolk, VA: Naval Doctrine Command, 14 February 1995. Reviews lessons of past RMAs and paradigm shifts; postulates a need for theory to better understand the nature of RMAs and paradigm shifts.
Valentine, William D. Leveraging Technology: Using the Practical Essence of Operational Art to Translate Information into Decisions. Newport, RI: NWC, 16 May 1995. Asserts that the operational decision-making process must be modified to take advantage of quantum leaps in information availability afforded by advances in technology and that operational art is the fulcrum for leveraging that technology.
Ward, Thomas E. Information Warfare: Is It Feasible? Desirable? Strategy Report.
Carlisle Barracks, PA: AWC, 29 March 1996. A 39-page study defining key concepts of I-AW
and examining its offensive and defensive components. Also examines opportunities and
potential pitfalls in conducting offensive and defensive I-AW and concludes with
precautionary caveats about vulnerabilities, expectations and applicability. MR
1. This project was completed under the auspices of a grant from the Institute for
National Security Studies, US Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, during fiscal
2. I extend special thanks to the following individuals for their help in compiling this bibliography: Professor John Arquilla at the Naval Post-graduate School, who suggested the most useful subject categories to use and numerous pertinent sources for inclusion; Professor Tom Czerwinski at the School of Information Warfare and Strategy, National Defense University, who provided me with a number of new publications of his and others at the school; and Navy Captain Richard O'Neil at the Pentagon's Information Operations Directorate, office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, who provided me with additional hard-to-locate references for the project.
Timothy L. Sanz is research librarian, Research Library of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. He received a B.A. from Indiana University, an M.S.L.S. from the University of Kentucky and a Ph.D. from Ohio State University. He was previously a technical information specialist, Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he created and maintained an extensive data base on foreign political-military affairs. He has published numerous bibliographies in European Security, Low-Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement and Soviet Armed Forces Review Annual on various topics, including ethno-national conflicts, NATO's Partnership for Peace Program, the conflict in the former Republic of Yugoslavia, organized crime in the Russian Federation, peacekeeping and terrorism. His bibliography "Nuclear Terrorism: Published Literature Since 1992," appeared in the July-August 1997 edition of Military Review.
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