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Information Warfare - Part 2
by Robert Thompson, Kaman Sciences Corp.

The Department of Defense (DoD) has implemented numerous organizational changes in response to the evolving paradigm of Information Warfare. This article will highlight the Service (i.e., Army, Navy/Marine Corps, and Air Force) initiatives in preparation for Information Warfare, as well as provide an overview of some of the organizational changes at the OSD-level (Office of the Secretary of Defense).

Department of the Army
Among the initiatives enacted by the U.S. Army was the creation of the Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA) in 1994 at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. LIWAıs mission is to provide the Department of Army (DA) level Information Warfare/Command and Control Warfare (IW/C2W) support to the Land Components and Army commands to facilitate planning and execution of Information Operations. In addition, LIWA will coordinate with National, Joint, and Service IW/C2W centers in the exchange and sharing of intelligence and information support. LIWA provides Field Deployment Teams to support Land Component Commanders.

Department of the Navy
The Navy has distributed IW/C2W responsibilities among several organizational elements. The Director of Space and Electronic Warfare (OPNAV) (N6) has the overall responsibility for IW/C2W development and guidance. The Fleet Information Warfare Center (FIWC) is located at Little Creek Amphibious Base in Virginia Beach, VA. FIWC is viewed as the Navyıs IW Center of Excellence and acts as the Fleet CINCıs (Commander in Chief) principal agent for IW/C2W tactics, training, and procedures. The Naval Information Warfare Activity (NIWA) functions as the Navyıs technical agent and interface to other Service and National IW organizations. NIWA also works closely with FIWC in the development of IW technical capabilities for Navy and Joint Operations. Other Navy organizations implementing IW/C2W measures include the Director of Naval Intelligence (N2); Naval Operations (N3); Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Warfare Requirements, and Assessments (N8); Commander, Naval Security Group Command; Commander, Naval Doctrine Command; and the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET).

Department of the Air Force
The Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ASCI), along with the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (XO) and Assistant Chief of Staff for C4 (SC), has the responsibility for IW doctrine development. One of the initiatives implemented by the Air Force was the creation of the Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC) in September 1993. The mission of AFIWC is to support operations, campaign planning, acquisition and testing through the application of IW/C2W assets. Support includes the organization and training of deployment teams, the development of C2W databases and applications, and Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team (AFCERT) functions. AFIWC is located at Kelly AFB in San Antonio, TX.

Office of Secretary of Defense
At the OSD-level, two panels have been created to address Information Warfare (IW) issues. The first panel, the Information Warfare Executive Board (IWEB), is chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense and has been chartered to examine IW planning, policy, and legal issues. The second panel, the Information Warfare Council, is chaired by the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I) and provides support to the IWEB on IW issues. An overview of panel(s) membership is provided in Figure 1. Administrative support for both panels is provided by Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I).

Source: Dr. Barry H. Brief, October 18, 1995

IW Executive Board

Chaired by: DEPSECDEF
Vice Chief's of Military Service
Dir IW ExDir CIA*
NSC Exc*

IW Council

Chaired by: ASD(C31)
Representative for Each
Pricipal on the Web
Both J3 & J6 for Joint Staff
Dir SpecProj USD(A&T)
Dir Net Assessment
Dir IW
* Invited Non-DoD

Figure 1. DoD IW Panels

Next Issue: IAC Program Support for Information Warfare

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