A Framework for Deception
Draft Report

6.0 General - - -
6.0.A - - Emit a false signal. -
6.0.B - - Deny close observation. Anti-aircraft fire to keep enemy spotter planes high and deny them close observation. A magician controls where his audience sits.
6.111.10 - Visual Information Store (VIS) - -
6.111.10.a - Time decay in about 0.1 seconds. - -
6.111.10.b - Interference - -
6.111.7.A - - - Color reversal after-image illusions are induced by selectively fatiguing visual receptors with the complementary color.
6.121.10 - Precategorical Acoustic Store (PAS) - -
6.121.10.a - Time decay in about 2 seconds - -
6.121.10.b - Interference - -
6.1SS Passive Mode - - -
6.2SS Active Mode - - -
6.M01 Electromagnetic - - -
6.M02 Acoustic - - -
6.M03 Chemical - - -
6.M04 Skin - - -
6.M05 Acceleration & Motion - - -
6.M11 Visual - - -
6.M21 Auditory - - -
6.M31 Taste - - -
6.M32 Smell - - -
6.M41 Pressure - - -
6.M42 Temperature - - -
6.M43 Damage - - -
6.MSS Mode & Type unspecified SENSOR MODE & TYPE: - -
6.MSS.1 DETECT (SENSE) (DETECTION) Avoid detection (deny sensor input, camouflage, cover, hide, secret compartment.) -
6.MSS.1.1 Coverage area - Evade sensor coverage area (spatial & temporal) During WWII POW camp escapes, prisoners would avoid detection by moving only when the search lights were directed away from them, taking cover when the sweeps covered their area.
6.MSS.1.1.a - - Capitalize on gaps within the coverage area of which target is unaware, or which target ignores. -
6.MSS.1.2 Amplitude & S / N ratio & sensitivity threshold - Make invisible by decreasing S / N ratio (decrease S & / or increase N) to below detection threshold. -
6.MSS.1.2.1 Signal level - - -
6.MSS.1.2.1.A - - Operate below sensor absolute sensitivity threshold. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B - - Decrease sensor sensitivity. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.a - - Habituation. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.b - - Fatigue. Optical illusions caused by fatigue (e.g., at the retinal level) include Mach bands; Hermann grid; complementary color after images (selective fatigue); halos.
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.c - - High intensity stimulus at boundaries of area of interest. In the dark, an individual standing in front of a bright light can be seen only as a silhouette, and can not be identified.
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.d - - Supersaturation of sensor. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.C - - Deflect 'illumination' so object is not illuminated. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.D - - Deflect 'illumination' so it is not returned to sensor. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.E - - Make object 'transparent'. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.F - - Change (e.g., increase) signal strength to misrepresent source characteristics (size & distance). -
6.MSS.1.2.2 Noise level - Mask (or 'jam') with: -
6.MSS.1.2.2.a - - noise. WWII Allied bombers dropped foil (chaff) to 'fog' enemy radar and keep them from obtaining an accurate fix.
6.MSS.1.2.2.b - - other stimuli. -
6.MSS.1.2.2.b.aa - - Large deliberate motion to cover smaller secret movement. -
6.MSS.1.2.2.b.bb - - Swift deliberate motion to cover slower secret movement. -
6.MSS.1.3 Sensor capacity - Use up limited sensor capacity (e.g. one shot device). -
6.MSS.1.3.a - - Trigger one-shot sensor (or alarm) so it can't detect (or warn of) the presence of a second object. In the space game Empire, in which spaceships can be made invisible, each player has a device to warn him when an enemy is within a certain range. But an invisible ship can still approach unnoticed if a visible ship also approaches at the same time and triggers the warning device first.
6.MSS.1.4 Precision (resolution, discriminability). (PRECISION / DISCRIMINATION) - -
6.MSS.1.4.1 Spacial. - Capitalize on sensor spatial discriminability limits. -
6.MSS.1.4.1.A - - Get close to and blend in with a background (or other) object (e.g., 'black art'). -
6.MSS.1.4.1.B - - Move several objects close together so target appear to be only one. -
6.MSS.1.4.1.C - - Capitalize on sensor spatial resolution limits (e.g., depth perception). -
6.MSS.1.4.2 Temporal. - Capitalize on sensor temporal discriminability limits. (E.g., sensor tracking or focusing time, observation sampling time, sensor storage time, sensory integration time). In playing the child's game 'Duck- duck- goose' under a strobe light, a runner's visual feedback is periodically delayed, inducing him to run wildly off course.6.MSS.5.2.A. Visual illusions: (1) Two parallel lines with an intersecting diagonal, the piece of the diagonal between the two parallel lines being removed from view. The remaining two parts of the diagonal appear offset. (2) Lines radiating from a point distort size of nearby squares (due to perspective effect). When two equal line segments form an inverted 'T,' the vertical one appears longer. An example of ambiguous perspective is the Necker Cube illusion, in which an outline drawing of a cube (or even a cube made of wire) can be seen as viewed from either of two positions. In one optical illusion, one stares at a fuzzy yellow ring on a crosshatch background until the ring vanishes due to retinal fatigue; in its place, instead of a void, one sees (literally) the cross hatch pattern which fills in the space where one formerly saw the ring.
6.MSS.111 - (Visual) - Eyes - -
6.MSS.121 - (Auditory) - Ears - -
6.MSS.131 - (Chemical: Taste) - Tongue - -
6.MSS.132 - (Chemical: Smell) - Nose - -
6.MSS.142 - (Skin) - Temperature - -
6.MSS.143 - (Skin) - Damage / Pain - -
6.MSS.3 PERCEIVE (SENSE) FEATURES (PRIMATIVES / CHARACTERISTICS). (Reduces (chunks) data to selected level of detail). - - -
6.MSS.3.1 Speed. - - -
6.MSS.3.2 Accuracy. - - -
6.MSS.3.2.A - - Degrade signal to decrease accuracy of feature perception. -
6.MSS.5 PERCEIVE THE WHOLE (GESTALT); Pattern recognition (e.g. by TEMPLATE MATCHING), classification, & identification. (Reduces (chunks) data to selected level of detail. See also high level processes 1.6.4. & 1.6.5. in EXEC). PATTERN ANALYSIS / RECOGNITION / CLASSIFICATION / IDENTIFICATION - -
6.MSS.5.1 Speed & Response Time. - - -
6.MSS.5.2 Accuracy. NOTE: 'ASSOCIATE', the process for the next higher level, is in EXEC. - - -
6.MSS.5.2.A - - Induce or capitalize on inaccuracies in target's perceptual processes. (See also 1.6.5. EXEC for high level processes; and 6.MSS.7 for effects due to reference values & feedback). E.g.: -
6.MSS.5.2.A.a - - Violate constancy expectancy to produce distortions of color, size, distance, form, angles, direction; e.g., size illusion induced by comparison with memory. The 'giant' actor illusion induced by using small furniture.
6.MSS.5.2.A.b - - Use systematic errors in extrapolation or perspective to induce distortions of shape or orientation. -
6.MSS.5.2.A.c - - Use spatial context to induce size changes. The 'boom-squish' illusion, in which a circle has radiating lines alternately inside and outside.
6.MSS.5.2.B - - Induce brain to provide its own sensory data to fill in for missing or ambiguous data (analogous to -
6.MSS.5.2.B.a - - Cause failure of the process. -
6.MSS.5.2.B.b - - Illusions caused by ambiguous perspective. -
6.MSS.5.2.C - - Dissimulate (simulate the absence of) something (e.g., object, capability, etc.) which is present. (Control detectable stimuli to be compatable with the absence of something, and apparently incompatable with its presence.) Provide cover. (See also 6.MSS.1. Avoid detection.) -
6.MSS.5.2.C.a - - Mask with a superset (blend with another signal). Obscure boundaries (disruptive patterns; countershading). Tigers' stripes and leopards' spots serve to break up their visual form, making them hard to detect in grass or brush.
6.MSS.5.2.C.b - - Make signal blend with background. The praying mantis blends with leaves; the walking stick with branches.
6.MSS.5.2.C.c - - Make background blend with signal. -
6.MSS.5.2.C.d - - Use a new, apparently random pattern (which target has not yet learned). -
6.MSS.5.2.C.e - - Provide data incompatible with the presence of something. -
6.MSS.5.2.D - - Simulate something (which does or doesn't exist). (May use decoys, lures, fakes (seen), shells, disguises, dummies, duplicates, positions & motions.) A carnivorous female firefly immitates the mating attraction light pattern of females of other species of fireflies.
6.MSS.5.2.D.a - - Simulate something else. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.a.aa - - impersonate. A popular ruse is to impersonate a delivery man or repair man to move about an area unnoticed or to gain access to a house.
6.MSS.5.2.D.b - - Simulate unimportant objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.b.aa - - disguise as one of many objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.c - - Simulate important objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.aa - - Simulate same (hidden) object elsewhere. During the Battle of Britain, the British constructed fake airdromes near the real ones and blacked them out just after target had been spotted by German bombers. After the first bombing wave, fires were set to simulate damage and provide markers for the second wave of bombers.
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.bb - - Simulate inputs and outputs to induce target to infer the existence of structure, content, or processes. In a pyramid scheme, or a 'Ponzi' scheme, early investors receive a handsome return on their investment. Instead of being derived from company profits, however, this money is actually that being contributed by later investors. In reality, there are no profits. But the return to previous investors encourages more and more people to invest, and the company may grow very large and appear very prosperous before its ultimate collapse.
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.cc - - Simulate something using a fake which is disposable or easily hidden. -
6.MSS.5.2.E - - Substitute / switch one object for another, especially under cover. (See continuity; 8.3.A.). -
6.MSS.5.2.E.a - - faked object for real; or defective objects for quality ones (e.g., spare parts). -
6.MSS.5.2.F - - Change features often (use substitutes) to prevent learning which features belong to the pattern. -
6.MSS.5.a - Method or algorithm - -
6.MSS.5.b - Initial low level processing - -
6.MSS.5.b.a - Automatic at lowest levels - -
6.MSS.5.b.b - Controllable at intermediate levels - -
6.MSS.5.c - level of detail - -
6.MSS.5.d - For ambiguous info, fills in info from memory pattern - -
6.MSS.7 Reference Values and Feedback. - - -
6.MSS.7.A - - Induce sensory imbalance by selective fatigue. -
6.MSS.7.B - - Induce sensory imbalance by sensory deprivation. -
6.MSS.7.B.a - - Disorient all or part of the cognitive system by denying sensory feedback / ref stimuli. -
6.MSS.7.C - - Induce / capitalize on loss or distortion of spatial reference. Optical illusions caused by a shift in reference conditions include apparent reverse motion after stopping.
6.MSS.7.D - - Induce / capitalize on loss or distortion of temporal reference (e.g., loss or distortion of sense of time during sleep or intense activity).(See also Murderer establishes alibi by resetting clocks while his witness is asleep.
6.MSS.7.E - - Induce perception of opposite characteristic by contrast effects. E.g.: -
6.MSS.7.E.a - - color contrast; -
6.MSS.7.E.b - - brightness contrast (brightness changes induced by brightness context; -
6.MSS.8 Buffer Memory. - - -
6.MSS.9 Other. - - -
6.MSS.M41 - (Skin) - Tactile - -
6.a - Inputs: signal (S), and noise (N) - -