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  • [Shannon49] C. Shannon, Communications Theory of Secrecy Systems, Bell Systems Technical Journal (1949):656--715. [In this paper, Shannon applied his information theory to breaking all of the known ciphers up till that date and provided a proof that the only theoretically unbreakable cryptosystem was the so-called perfect cipher. This paper also introduced the concepts of diffusion and confusion, and introduced the concept of work load which is the basis for using imperfect cryptosystems today.]

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